At the end of the nineteenth century, weakened by opium wars and heavily affected by the United States’ open door policy, China was being partitioned by other world powers. The Ching dynasty remained stubbornly conservative, leading to the Boxer rebellions. The stated purpose of these rebellions was to expel all foreigners from China, and to overthrow the Ching dynasty. Although the Ching dynasty successfully crushed the rebellions, it never managed to fully recover and collapsed in 1912. At this point, Sun Yat Sen founded the Kuomintang and took control of the new Republican government. Trying to avoid civil war, he offered the presidency to Yuan Shi Kai, warlord in control of northern China. Yuan Shi Kai was in power until his death in 1916, which sent China into civil war, while Sun Yat Sen returned to lead the Kuomintang. In 1921, the communist party (CCP) was founded and joined the Kuomintang to fight the northern warlords. Four years later, at Sun Yat Sen’s death, Chiang Kaishek took control of the Kuomintang. The CCP organized a strike against the Kuomintang, and were brutally supressed. The invasion of Manchuria in 1932 eventually lead to the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war. Following the defeat of Japan, cicil war in China resumed. The CCP took Beijing while Chiang Kaishek and the Kuomintang fled to Taiwan. Both parties claimed to be the legitimate government of China. This played a role in the Cold War, as the Soviet Union recognized the CCP as the government, while the United States recognized the Kuomintang. During the Korean War, Mao and the CCP to the side of communist North Korea and fought against the United Nations and South Korea. Mao tried to emulate Stalin in leading communist China, although failed miserably. Based on Stalin’s Five Year Plan, Mao’s Great Leap Forward attempted to industrialize the Chinese economy. His Cultural Revolution mirrored the Great Purges and Show Trials of the Soviet Union, although this attempt also failed. Mao circulated his Little Red Book, a book of his speeches and quotations that he believed would aid the Cultural Revolution. Another of Mao’s efforts lay in his mobilization of the Red Guard in 1967, which attempted to spread communism to the youth. After 1976 Deng Xiaoping was in power in China, and continued to lead a politically repressive nation. In 1989, protesters gathered in Tiananmen Square, and were brutally slaughtered by the Chinese government. Economically, however, China began to allow capitalism in Special Economic Zones. As foreign investment increased, China saw companies like Nike and McDonalds introduced into their economy.