As World War I came to an end, unhappy German civilians sought a method of restoring Germany to its initial state of power. A new civilian government was formed, and the military, believing that they were close to winning the war, claimed that the formation of a civilian government was a stab in the back. One of these methods came in the form of the Spartacists Putsch, a radical socialist movement led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. The Spartacists believed that the workers should directly control the government. They were eventually suppressed by the Friekorps, a group of demobilized soldiers. The Friekorps were known for killing people solely on the basis of speculations that they were communists. Eventually, many of the Friekorps under Kapp started the Kapp Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the government. The Weimar Republic was formed and drew increasing support, so much that the military refused to crush them, causing Ebert to call for a general strike. Meanwhile, World War I was drawing to a close and nations from around the world met at the Paris Peace Conference to discuss methods of preventing another large-scale war. Numerous treaties were signed, including the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the war between Germany and the Allied powers, introduced restrictions to Germany’s land and military, and forced Germany to pay reparations. The treaty included the War Guilt Clause, stating that Germany was explicitly responsible for the outbreak of war. The Big Three – the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, David Lloyd George, and the Prime Minister of France, Georges Clemenceau – made all of the major decisions informally, which were then ratified by other leaders in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles during the conference. Woodrow Wilson was an intellectual, and he proposed his 14 points – rules that he hoped, if followed, would maintain a state of world peace. One of the most significant outcomes of the Paris Peace Conference was the League of Nations, an international organisation intended to promote international cooperation and prevent another war. After the war ended in Germany, hyper-inflation threatened the economy. French and Belgian troops were sent into the Ruhr basin to force Germanny to make their reparation mayments, causing Ruhr citizens to refuse to work. The occupation of the Ruhr forced the government to issue worthless marks to the citizens, which only worsened inflation. The Dawes plan and the Young plan began to fix the inflation problem by reducing reparation payments and balancing trade between the east and the west, until the economy crashed on what was known as Black Tuesday. Later, in Munich, a group led by Adolf Hitler participated in a failed coup known as the Beer-Hall Putsch. Hitler was jailed for this, and during his time in jail, he wrote Mein Kampf, a book outlining his ideologies. Following World War I, Germany entered a time of economic and political turmoil, which eventually led to Hitler’s rise to power in the nineteen thirties.