In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, India was a British colony – the “jewel of the British empire.” Indians were suffering at the hands of the British, as the British prevented them from developing their own textile industry and instead made them rely on their mother country. As a result of this, the idea of Indian independence began to circulate, but it was Gandhi who first acted on this idea. Tired of relying on the British for clothing, Gandhi began making his clothes out of cotton that he had spun himself. He led a march to the sea with thousands of followers, protesting the British Salt Act that forbid Indians from making their own salt (History, 2010). Gandhi was known for employing methods of civil disobedience and passive resistance, and used non-violent methods to achieve his goals. When the Indian people became violent, Gandhi would commenced a hunger strike in protest in an attempt to maintain a peaceful method of gaining independence. In 1919, a crowd of non-violent protestors were massacred by the army for protesting the arrest of two leaders (Wikipedia, 2014). Following this, Gandhi became the leader of the Indian independence movement and the Indian National Congress. While the Hindus sought independence for India, the Muslims and Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted to separate and form a country called Pakistan. The Muslim League was a political party that called for the separation from India of the Muslim people. Gandhi, however, wanted a united country of both Hindus and Muslims, maintaining the firm belief that the two could coexist. He did not get his wish, as the partition of India would form two independent nations: India and Pakistan. In 1947, India finally gained independence, and Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Indian president. This led to massive displacements as Hindus fled to India while Muslims fled to Pakistan. After the separation, there remained a large amount of conflict between the Hindus in India and the Muslims in Pakistan; in 1965, the two nations went to war over the Kashmir region. Later, in 1971, East Pakistan attempted to break away from West Pakistan, and eventually formed Bangladesh (Asian History, 2014).Today, tensions remain high between India and Pakistan.